Generally states are bound under international law to recognize and protect the human right of persons. States would be deemed violators, if the enjoyment of such right is prohibited, criminalized or restricted in any form. The right to self- determination is a right recognised by various international covenants ratified/acceded to by member states.  By virtue of this right each person can freely determine their status, be it political, cultural, social and economic without fear of interference by persons or the state.

Air transportation is sometimes utilised by terrorists through hijacking of aircrafts to fulfil terrorist objectives. The September 11 2001 attack in the US is widely regarded as the most severe incident of aircraft hijacking in aviation history. The possibility of a terror attack was also signified as a probable cause of the crash of Egypt Air flight MS804 enroute Paris to Cairo on May 19, 2016. In a situation of hijacked aircraft resulting into bodily injury or death of passengers on board, passengers are entitled to compensation. The aviation liability regime makes air carriers liable for death, wounding and other bodily injury of passengers as long as the accident causing the death or injury took place during a carriage by air.


Several decades ago, property rights in Natural Resources Development (NRD) had provided benefits to the right holders and resulted in cost burden on the host communities; in terms of human right abuses, conflicts and environmental degradation. Gradually, the concepts of sustainable development, public participation and  corporate responsibility have shaped the limits of property rights in NRD. This has resulted in shared benefits and costs for both the property right holders and the host communities. This paper seeks to stimulate discussions on understanding how the interactions between property rights and human rights in NRD affect and are affected by concerns for the host communities, the environment and the world at large. It concludes that the concept of "Social License to Operate" will in the nearest future usher in a property rights regime in NRD in which the host communities will be the ultimate determinant of who does what? where? And how?

The Nigerian Gender and Equal opportunity Bill, 2011 is a legislation that seeks to eliminate all forms of discrimination on the basis of sex and gender in private and public spaces. It affirms women’s rights to equal opportunities and to realize their full potential and provide protection for their bodily integrity and human dignity. The bill   sought to give effect to  Chapters II and IV of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria;

Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are one of the many realities of conflicts in a state in contemporary times. Due to the abrupt nature of the displacing factors, IDPs often find themselves stripped of their economic and social security. Their basic rights and freedoms sometimes also have to be negotiated for these basic needs. The end result is that IDPs become exposed, pilloried, disadvantaged and vulnerable.