Corruption - a universal phenomenon which dates back many centuries, continues to undermine the overall integrity of countries considered corrupt. Consistently ranked among the most corrupt country in the world by Transparency International, corruption in Nigeria seems to have defied solution, despite the arrays of legislations and the punishment attached to it.
By Esther Hatsiwa (Mrs)
(LLB, BL, LLM RESEARCH FELLOW 11 NIALS LAGOS)
The phenomenon of internal displacement has always existed; it however became the subject of significant concern for the international community only recently, with crisis and sectarian violence in most continents of the world. Most International Instruments maintain that internally displaced persons are not refugees because they are still within their country of origin, as they have not crossed a national frontier. Thus, if persecuted individuals cross their national border, an elaborate system of international law and institutions comes into play for their protection, however if they remain within the national border they are not considered refugees, hence are not entitled to such protection. IDP’s may however be given ad hoc protection if the United Nations General Assembly requests the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to render its 'good office' to assist, or if the Security Council so directs.
Chukwuemeka Castro Nwabuzor (Research Fellow, NIALS)
The objectives of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA), 2015 as captured in section 1 ACJA include the promotion of efficient management of criminal justice institutions, speedy dispensation of justice, protection of the society from crime, and protection the rights and the interest of the defendant and the victim indicate a deliberate shift from punishment as the main goal of the criminal justice to restorative justice which pays attention to the needs of the society, the victims, vulnerable persons and respect for human dignity (Yemi Akinseye-George, ‘An Overview of the Changes and Application of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015’ in Adedeji Adekunle, et al, Issues on Criminal Justice Administration in Nigeria (NIALS Publication, 2016) 3-4). The provisions of sections 321, 341 and 342 of ACJA are demonstrative of the paradigm shift of the ACJA to restorative justice.
Patent system is generally regarded as a catalyst for technological and socio-economic development through the workings of useful patents for the overall benefit of the society. By securing proprietary rights in patented invention, the patent system encourages research and development (R&D) needed for the promotion of innovative and inventive enterprise.